Hiring the best candidate is one of the most important tasks a manager is responsible to perform. This page will walk you through the hiring process as quickly and easily as possible and will also give you some helpful hints to make this a profitable experience.
- Reviewing the Application
- Selecting Applicants for Interviews
- Selecting a Committee
- Preparing for the Interview
- Interview Tips
- Americans with Disability Act
- Guidelines for Legal Interviews
- Interviews and Reference Checks
- Selecting a Finalist
- Ecclesiastical Clearances
- Making and Accepting the Offer
- The Regretful Phone Call
- Physical Examination
- Completion of Hiring Paperwork
- What's Next
- Making a Personnel Folder
Reviewing the Application
Preliminary screening is completed by the hiring manager, the Staff and Administrative Employment screener, the department, and YJobs (https://yjobs.byu.edu/hr), BYU's online employment system. YJobs will automatically screen out applicants who do not meet the minimum job requirements and will rank them according to their scores on supplemental questions.
- Biographical information regarding work experience and educational/vocational training
- Office Skills Tests scores
- Supplemental Questions
- Look for evidence of excellence (awards, achievements, promotions, etc.)
Selecting Applicants for Interviews
While not required before interviewing, at least two reference checks need to be recorded in order to hire a potential employee. Past supervisors are the best source of information, although personal references are acceptable.
Choosing Promising Applicants
While an applicant should not be ruled out based solely on these criteria, the following could be warning flags of potential problems:
- Typographical errors, deleted text, misspellings, poor penmanship, overall sloppiness
- Several previous employers cannot be contacted or are "out of business"
- "Attended" school (but did not graduate?)
- "Degree received” marked, but with a future graduation date more than six weeks away
- Termination, left job by mutual agreement, asked to resign, left for "personal reasons"
- Criminal convictions
- Missing or uncompleted sections of the application form
- "See resume" instead of filling in application
- No explanations for breaks in work history
- Phrases such as "exposure to," "knowledge of," and "familiar with"
- Regressive work history (step backward in duties, career, or salary) without good reason
- Vague answers
Letters of Recommendation
Letters written for the applicant generally represent biased information and should be viewed skeptically unless they contain negative information.
Selecting a Committee
While not a legal requirement, forming an interview committee of several people is a good, professional business practice. The additional interviewers provide the evaluator with an extra set of eyes and ears, help eliminate interviewer bias, and result in a more objective evaluation. Furthermore, the candidates not selected will feel they have been dealt with more fairly if considered by a committee rather than by one person. The following are a few tips to make hiring committees more effective:
- Limit the number of people on the committee. Include immediate supervisors and others who have a clear and thorough understanding of the vacant position requirements.
- Assign duties. Establish a committee chair and who will lead the interview. Decide on questions and who will ask them, based on each area of concern. Decide who will make the final hiring decision.
- Require all members to read each resume and application before interviews.
- At the beginning of the interview, introduce each person, with title, and how they relate to the position. Nametags or nameplates help the candidate remember names of interviewers.
- All interviewers should meet with the applicant at the same time. This allows the whole group to see and hear the same information and to have a common basis for comparison.
- After each interview, each committee member should take notes to help remember each candidate for further discussion.
A good hiring committee can improve the hiring process and result in a better decision.
Preparing for the Interview
At least three qualified applicants should be interviewed. If fewer than 2 applicants are selected to be interviewed, we suggest the department re-open the job to allow more applicants to apply. Predetermine what you are looking for based on your job description, with adjustments if needed. Design questions that are open-ended and that will give you the answers you need. For example: "What experience do you have using Microsoft Word?" Instead of: "Are you good at using Microsoft Word?" Learn the rules of legal interviewing and play by them.
In general, do not ask questions that cover the following:
- Date of Birth
- Place of Birth
- Arrest Record
- Marital Status
- Anything About Children and Childcare
- Height and Weight
- History of Alcohol or Drug Addiction
- Hobbies and Sports Activities
- Disabilities or Physical Limitations
- How They Feel About Unions
Each member of the interviewing panel should review these guidelines as well as the Americans with Disability Act.
Interviewing and Questioning Techniques
In making the transition from small talk to the interview proper, the first question asked should be open and not difficult to answer. For example: "Please tell us about your experience and training as it relates to this position". See sample interview questions for more ideas.
Interviews should flow more like a conversation, not an interrogation. To achieve this, comments and spontaneous conversation about relevant topics are encouraged; however, if the candidate self-discloses information that would have been inappropriate to obtain, further probing or documentation of the information should not occur.
David Cherrington in The Management of Human Resources gives 4 purposes of interviews:
- To obtain information about the applicant.
- To sell the organization.
- To provide information about the organization.
- To establish friendship.
The job of the interview committee is to ask questions and listen for predictive information from candidates. Candidates should do approximately 80% of the talking, interviewers 20%.
Interviewers do not need to be overly concerned about silences. Sometimes candidates will fill in a silence with important additional information; however, the situation should not be allowed to turn awkward.
Follow Up Questions
Probing or follow up questions will encourage further conversation. These questions can elicit useful information beyond rehearsed responses. Basic example: "Can you provide more detail on that?" or "Then what did you do?"
Consistency in Questioning
Generally, all candidates should be asked the same series of questions. It is much easier to compare candidates if everyone is measured against the same criteria.
Candidates should be invited to ask questions. The committee's answers will assist candidates in evaluating their "fit" for the job. The quality and quantity of questions asked by candidates also provides useful information to the interview committee.
- Determine the length of time for each interview.
- Hold the interviews relatively close together to provide a better comparison of the candidates.
- The interview room or location should be free from interruptions.
Informing the Candidates
- Day, time and location of the interview.
- Directions and parking instructions.
- Approximate time to allot from arriving on campus to departure.
- What he or she can expect in the interview.
Setting the Stage
- Interviews should be free of interruptions (no phone calls, visitors, etc.).
- Interviewers should not be late to the meeting or act rushed.
- A warm greeting and suitable introductions should be made.
- "Small talk" at the beginning of the interview can be made; however, interviewers need to be cautious to avoid small talk that could lead to inappropriate questions.
- Candidates should be informed as to what will occur in the interview.
- The position should be explained, including working hours and any special schedules (required to work weekends, swing shift, etc.).
Be Aware of the Candidates
- Give them a chance to sell themselves.
- Give yourself a chance to evaluate their qualifications.
- Stay neutral in the interview.
- Don't be overly positive or optimistic.
- Explain how you will handle the selection process.
- The interview should be ended with a friendly, positive "Thank you."
- Candidates should not be rejected until the entire process is completed and a candidate has accepted an offer.
Americans With Disabilities Act
An employer may not make any pre-employment inquiries regarding disabilities:
- on application forms.
- in job interviews.
- in reference checks.
|Appropriate Questions Addressing Ability||Inappropriate Questions Addressing Disabilities|
You may provide information on your attendance requirements and ask if the applicant can meet those requirements.
Focus on Specific Job Functions:
The following questions may reveal a disability that could find you liable for discrimination.
Other Topics to Avoid Regarding a Disability:
The same set of questions should be asked of all applicants. However, if an applicant has a "known" disability that would appear to interfere with or prevent performance of a job-related function, he/she may be asked to describe how this function would be performed even if other applicants do not have to do so. For more information, please see the full Americans With Disabilities Act.
Guidelines for Legal Interviews
Respect for the candidate and his/her personal information should be exercised. The following shows what is considered lawful or unlawful to discuss in an interview.
|Sex||Must be a bona fide job qualification or necessity. Distinctions based on gender are uncommon (e.g. issue attendant in locker room, actor or actress playing a part).||Employment decisions should not be based on gender, but on the ability to perform the job.|
|Marital & Family Status||Whether candidate can meet specified work schedules.||"Are you married, single, divorced, engaged etc.?" Number and age of children. Any questions or references to pregnancy.|
|Age||Inquiry as to minimum age requirements, by law, to work.||Inquiries regarding age, retirement, etc. The law protects individuals over the age of 40 from being discriminated against because of age.|
|Disability Accommodation||This question must be asked of each candidate: "After reviewing the essential job functions, are you able to perform them?"||Any pre-employment inquiry about the existence, nature, or severity of a disability.|
|Citizenship||"Are you authorized to work in the U.S.?" This question must be asked of each candidate.||"Of what country are you a citizen?" "Do your parents originate from the U.S.?" "I see you were born in…"|
|Ancestry||Languages that the candidate reads and/or speaks fluently, if it is job related.||Inquiries into lineage, ancestry, native language, etc. How foreign language was acquired.|
|Race||None. (Race and ethnicity are now obtained via voluntary self-disclosure through Yjobs)||Discrimination should not occur on any basis related to the race of the candidate.|
|Convictions/Arrests||Whether the applicant has any actual convictions. (If the candidate answers yes, then contact Employment Services)||Any inquiries about arrests.|
|Credit Rating||None.||Inquiries about credit rating, charge accounts, etc.|
|Name||"Do you have work or school records under a different name?"||Inquiries which would indicate candidate's lineage, national origin, previous name of candidate where it has been changed by court order, marriage, etc.|
Reference checks are a great way to gather past behavior and performance information about a potential employee by personally contacting previous employers. References are best done before interviewing, but at least two checks are to be completed before a salary/wage can be set. Letters of recommendation are not considered reference checks.
References can be submitted online by hiring managers with access; just click on the " Submit Employment References Online" link on Y Jobs. Another way to submit references is to fax the completed form located on our Human Resources website under Managers and Forms to Staff and Administrative Employment 2-0209.
There are two aspects of a reference check: Record checks to verify information about dates of employment, job titles, salary information, licenses, etc. Position match checks look at the applicant's work habits, personality, and personal character. Inquiries may include work ethic, attendance, performance, time management, communication skills, quantity and quality of work performed, and also weaknesses.
An employer MAY NOT request any information about the job applicant from:
- Family members
- Other sources not supplied by the job applicant.
Calling a Previous Employer
Prior to the conditional offer being made, the employer may inquire about the following from a previous employer:
- Job functions
- Tasks performed
- Quality and quantity of work performed
- How job functions were performed
- Attendance record
- Other applicable issues that do not relate to disability
If an applicant has a "known disability" and has indicated he or she could perform the job with reasonable accommodation, the previous employer may be asked about accommodations that were made.
Remember: do not inquire about an applicant's
- Worker's Compensation History
Selecting a Finalist
After the initial interview process, the committee should consider whether each candidate is 1) definitely a finalist, 2) a good candidate, but not a finalist, or 3) definitely not a finalist. The committee should then narrow down the "definite" group to approximately three finalists.
To help when deciding between candidates, three main questions regarding the candidates should be considered:
- Can they do the job (do they have the knowledge, technical skills, interpersonal skills, character, work ethic, and abilities to perform the duties)?
- What motivates them to do a good job, what patterns have they demonstrated in past positions; can they be trained?
- How will they "fit" with the organization?
As interviewers attempt to answer these questions, they should:
- Read over the job requirements.
- Review the candidates' qualifications, education, and work histories.
- Consider the candidates' potential to learn and eventually to be promoted.
- Conduct second or third interviews as needed.
After the interview, change the interviewed applicants' statuses on YJobs to "Interviewed." This is an important step in filling your YJobs posting.
Now that the best candidate for the position has been identified, the next step in the hiring process is to obtain an Ecclesiastical Clearance on the finalist. Please submit ALL candidates, including current BYU full-time and part-time employees, for Ecclesiastical Clearances.
Who Needs One:
- Anyone who is not a current employee of BYU.
- A former employee if they have been terminated for more than one month. A student employee who is being re-classified or is moving to a non-student job.
- An employee who is moving from a category I to a category II, or from category I or II to full-time status.
- Note: Non-LDS applicants sign a Standard of Conduct Commitment form at time of hire in the Staff and Administrative Employment Office.
Ecclesiastical and Employment References are strictly confidential and are not to be divulged to anyone, except Staff and Administrative Employment.
Once the Ecclesiastical Clearance is completed and any required Employment References have been submitted, the finalist's information will be sent automatically to the Compensation Office to determine the appropriate wage/salary. General wage/salary calculations are estimated based on minimum pay level for the position, work experience, and education of the applicant. Compensation will contact you to discuss wage/salary issues. Please be aware that applicants are not to come into the Staff and Administrative Employment Office (D-70 ASB) to be hired until their Ecclesiastical Clearances have been completed.
For further questions regarding Ecclesiastical Clearances, please contact Staff and Administrative Employment at 422-8327.
After selecting the desired candidate to be hired, change the applicant’s status on YJobs to “Ecclesiastical Review Pending.” An email will automatically be sent to the Ecclesiastical Endorsement Specialist with the appropriate information.
Making and Accepting the Offer
At the completion of the clearance, references, and pay-level calculation, you will receive notification to offer the job to the finalist at the approved wage/salary.
After the finalist accepts the job offer, change the applicant’s status on YJobs to "Offer Accepted."
The Regretful Phone Call
After the offer has been accepted, a member of the interviewing panel should promptly notify all of the other interviewed candidates of the filling of the position. A personal contact by phone or letter is recommended. For non-interviewed YJobs applicants, please change their statuses to “Not Hired – Sends Email.” This is a reflection of BYU courtesy.
As you converse, remember to:
- Be honest and to the point
- Talk in a friendly tone
- Maintain the dignity of each candidate
- Do not embellish or misrepresent the facts, i.e., "You were in our top three..."
- Do not discuss qualifications of other candidates
- Refer to those you hired as being the best match (or best fit) for the position.
- Do not open the conversation to questions.
"As you are aware, the candidates were numerous and the decision was extremely difficult, but we decided to extend an offer to another person we felt made the best match with our office at this point in time. I want to thank you for sharing your time and efforts with us in this process."
Post Offer Physical Examination
Post Offer Physical Examinations are medical tests given to evaluate the overall ability of a person to perform a specific job. These exams include both a physical therapy lift test and a medical exam. Only certain jobs falling under certain classifications require the administration of post offer physicals. If one is required, under no circumstances may an employee begin work until the post offer physical has been completed and evaluated by a representative in Staff and Administrative Employment. BYU Physical Exam procedural steps are as follows:
- Requirement of a physical exam for a position will be determined by the classification of a position in regards to the National Council on Compensation Insurance, Inc. Codes assigned by Workers Compensation. Any position assigned NCCI Code 9101 by BYU Workers Compensation department, falling in employment classifications of Category 2 or Staff will require a post offer physical exam. Specific lifting amounts tested for during the physical therapy portion of an exam will be designated by departments and indicated on the position posting. Area HR Consultants will act as liaisons between Risk Management and Safety, and their assigned departments, in addressing any sort of suspect working conditions and monitor the updating of correct NCCI codes to positions.
- If you have any question as to whether or not a physical is required, please call 422-2150.
- Packets containing instructions and physical examination information will be mailed to the appropriate department as soon as a potential hire has been selected.
- Once the department gives the physical exam packet to the applicant, it is his/her responsibility to schedule an appointment for both the physical therapy lift test and the medical exam with BYU Student Health Center at (801) 422-5156, or https://health.byu.edu.
- The applicant takes the entire physical exam packet with them to the post-offer physical exam at the Student Health Center.
- Applicants must bring the completed physical exam packet to Staff and Administrative Employment (D-70 ASB) at the time of hire. It should be in a stamped and sealed envelope.
- Whether or not an individual passes a post-offer physical exam, and continues in the hiring process, will be decided by a representative in the Staff and Administrative Employment Office. The representative reviews the confidential information recorded by the doctor on the physical exam and the Health Questionnaire filled out by the prospective employee. Based on this information and the physical requirements of the position indicated by the hiring manager on the ADA Worksheet, the representative determines if the potential employee can proceed to be hired and receive authorization to begin work.
- In cases where the abilities of an individual to perform the physical requirements of a position are in question, the University Physical Exam Workforce Committee will evaluate each case specifically.
Completion of Hiring Paperwork
In order to complete the hire, please instruct your new employee to bring all the required documents to the Staff and Administrative Office (D-70 ASB) to avoid unnecessary holds or delays.
The new employee cannot begin work until given an authorization form to begin work from Staff and Administrative Employment.
1. Submit an electronic Personal Action Form (ePAF)
- Full-time employees: complete an electronic Personal Action Form (ePAF) online through the Human Resources/Payroll link accessed through Route Y.
- Part-time employees: complete an electronic Personal Action Form (ePAF) online through the Human Resources/Payroll link accessed through Route Y.
2. On or before the first day of work:Review BYU's Honor Code and Dress & Grooming Standards with the new employee (https://honorcode.byu.edu/), and send him/her to the Staff and Administrative Office (D-70 ASB). For completion of Form I-9, have the employee bring the following documents:
- Appropriate documents which demonstrate authorization to work in the U.S. (The most common documents used are: U.S. Passport OR current driver’s license/picture I.D. and Social Security Card/ Birth Certificate. Please contact Staff and Administrative Employment for information on other acceptable documents.)
All employees must bring the following to complete hiring paperwork:
- Original Social Security card for payroll and tax purposes.
New employees may be referred to the Benefits Office and Traffic Office.
Research suggests that motivation and performance are set in the first few hours of employment. A thoughtful introduction to the job environment can help a new employee get a fast start in becoming a productive and committed university employee. This checklist is provided to aid supervisors in that process. Please feel free to adapt the checklist to your department and individual needs.
- Appropriate members of management
- Department members and others with whom the new employee will have regular contact
- Review of department and university organization
- Departmental mission, functions, and responsibilities
- Keys, computers, phones, etc.
- Job description
- Annual Performance Plan
- Major accountability and performance standards
- Performance expectations
- Progress review discussions
- Annual evaluation
- Development and training
- New University Personnel Orientation attendance
- Faculty/ Employee Handbook
- Meetings with supervisor
- Department meetings
- Bulletin boards/ Y-News
- Campus and U.S. mail
- Devotional/ Forums
Policies and Procedures
- Electronic Handbook
- Department Dress and Grooming Standards
- University Devotionals
- Wise use of University funds
- Use of BYU equipment and facilities
- Working hours, overtime restriction, attendance, and punctuality
- Kronos use
Employee Relations/ Equal Employment Opportunity
- Fair Treatment
- Third party assistance
Safety, Medical and Security
- Appropriate/ mandated safety procedures
- Emergency program and 911
- Giving appropriate medical assistance
- Department security practices
- HazCom training (for employees who use hazardous chemicals)
- Work injury, medical treatment, worker's compensation
- Reporting accidents/ hazards
Access to Computers
- Net ID Password
- Personal and mainframe access
Making a Personnel Folder
Personnel folders can help you to organize important employee information for legal reasons and for your own reference. Hire, term, and wage increase forms do not have to be in the folder since they are stored electronically. However, you might want to keep hard copies of the following documents:
- Print-outs of the Employment Reference form
- Notes from interviews
- Authorization to Begin Work
- Documentation of training or certification received during employment
- Disciplinary actions taken
- Information about promotions, demotions, and raises
- Letters of termination
The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior.
Dr. Pierre Mornell, Hiring Smart!
The good-to-great companies place "greater weight on character attributes than on specific educational background, practical skills, specialized knowledge, or work experience."
Jim Collins, Good to Great
Of all the decisions a (manager) makes, none is as important as the decisions about people because they determine the performance capacity of the organization.
Peter Drucker, Frontiers of Management
Take cautiously what people say about themselves in hiring interviews. While nearly always well intentioned and honest, people often lack self-awareness. Instead, look at what theyve done in the past. Thats the overwhelming predictor of what theyll do in the future. Look for indications of real accomplishment in anything: sports, art, student government, starting a club or small business as a kid. Look for achievement and a pattern of high productivity. While you can nurture it, hiring someone who is achievement oriented is much easier than trying to force-feed that mentality.
Jack Zenger, Making 2+2=5
We don't just look at experience. We want to know: Who are they? Why are they here? We find out who they are by asking them why they made decisions in their life. The answers to these questions give us insight into their core values.
Jim Collins, Good to Great